Medical research involves research in a wide range of fields, such as biology, chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology with the goal of developing new medicines or medical procedures or improving the application of those already available. It can be viewed as encompassing preclinical research (for example, in cellular systems and animal models) and clinical research (for example, clinical trials).
Individuals who are at high risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia can be identified years before diagnosis using genetic information from blood samples.
In this Review, Ferretti et al. discuss the evidence for sex-related differences in Alzheimer disease symptoms, progression, risk factors and treatment, and consider how understanding sex differences is crucial in developing precision medicine.
A phase 2 placebo-controlled randomized trial reveals that verapamil promotes beta cell function in adult subjects with recent-onset type 1 diabetes.
A glutamate-gated chloride channel delivered via gene therapy is shown to detect elevated brain glutamate levels and trigger the suppression of neuronal excitability, thereby attenuating seizure activity in two rodent models of epilepsy.
The human gut microbiome has been associated with many health factors, but variability between studies limits exploration of these effects. Here, Jackson et al. analyse gut microbiota associations for 38 common diseases and 51 medications within >2700 members of the TwinsUK cohort.